Just like electrical power is allowed on a boat dock, you can install solar panels on a boat dock. The electrical power would be returned to the home using buried conduit and tied into your existing electrical distribution system. The main consideration is the structural engineering of the system. The key question is whether wind uplift from the solar panels will exceed the capability of the boat dock roof and underlying structure.
Given that most boat docks in Southwest Florida are in the coastal region where the design wind speed for structures is relatively high at 130-150 mph. Modern covered boat docks are built to withstand these high wind speeds as required by the Florida Building Code. Generally speaking, if your covered boat dock was build to code recently, we will probably be able to install solar panels on top.
One idea for people building new covered boat docks would be to forego the roof altogether and design the solar panels as a trellis structure over the boat. The solar panels could be mounted to steel or aluminum I-Beams or directly to extruded rails designed for solar panel attachment. It’s always easier to start from scratch than to retrofit an existing covered dock.
If we can contact the builder of your existing dock, we can probably obtain the original engineering documentation and determine whether solar panels can be mounted on top. A site visit is required to look at the condition and construction of the dock. In most cases, it is not only possible, but a great idea to install solar panels on a boat dock!